Helsingin olympiastadion [Helsinki Olympic Stadium]
Toivo Jäntti, Yrjö Lindegren
Concrete by reinforcement
Concrete is a relatively brittle material that is strong in compression but less so in tension.
To increase its overall strength, steel rods, wires, mesh or cables may be embedded in concrete before it sets. This reinforcement, often known as rebar, resists tensile forces. By forming a strong bond, the two materials are able to resist a variety of applied forces, effectively acting as a single structural element .
In this case, the concrete can be made by mixing the components directly on site, or it may be transported from a production plant in concrete-mixer trucks.
This method has the disadvantage of leaving the concrete exposed to the elements while it is setting. Whereas, with other methods, the environmental conditions can be controlled during setting, providing greater control over the outcome, with cast-in-place concrete a series of tests and protocols are necessary to verify its final strength.
- textured walls
- wooden formwork finish
- stamped concrete
- exposed aggregate concrete, colored concrete, etc.
Beams are the horizontal load-bearing elements of the frame. Columns are the vertical elements of the frame and act as the building’s primary load-bearing element. They transmit the beam loads down to the foundations.
A shear wall resists loads parallel to the plane of the wall. Collectors, also known as drag members, transfer the diaphragm shear to shear walls and other vertical elements in the seismic force resisting system. Shear walls are typically light-framed or braced wooden walls with shear panels, reinforced concrete walls, reinforced masonry walls or steel plates.
The construction of cantilevers creates structures that protrude from their supports without external reinforcements, contrasted with constructions supported at both ends, where the load is distributed between them, like in the case of a beam or a lintel. Formal strategies can be used to improve the structural performance of the cantilever and reduce thicknesses.
A suspended roof refers to the case where the vertical supports do not rest on the ground but hang from a structure above. Steel cables are often used for these supports, since they are only subject to traction forces.
State of Conservation
The Olympic Stadium in Helsinki is best known for serving as the main sports venue in the 1952 Olympic Games; however, the beginning of its construction dates back to 1934. Numerous modifications have been made since, altering specific aspects of the stadium to adapt it to major sporting events, including the 1952 Olympics and the World Championships in Athletics in 1983 and 2005. To a large extent, its current appearance is the result of the renovations carried out in 1955, when additional office spaces were added around the perimeter, which substantially modified its original minimalist appearance.
In spite of the alterations, some of the most characteristic elements of the stadium, such as the slender 72-meter white tower and the building that holds the main grandstands, have been maintained in their original state. The tower is a vertical rectangular volume, broken up on one of its corners by a very long staircase that runs along its entire height and gives the building its identity. The seating areas are encircled by a curved volume, from which emerges a building that acts as a support for the main grandstand. The ensemble, which forms a compositional unit with a clearly rationalist aesthetic, recalls the stadium’s original architectural language. The original exposed concrete sunshade that covers the main grandstand has also been preserved.
Paavo Nurmen Tie 1
Uusimaa (Region), Greater Helsinki (Sub-region) 00250 Helsinki