Founders of the Bulgarian State Monument
Krum Damyanov (sculptour), Ivan Slavov (sculptour)
Concrete by reinforcement
Concrete is a relatively brittle material that is strong in compression but less so in tension.
To increase its overall strength, steel rods, wires, mesh or cables may be embedded in concrete before it sets. This reinforcement, often known as rebar, resists tensile forces. By forming a strong bond, the two materials are able to resist a variety of applied forces, effectively acting as a single structural element .
In this case, the concrete can be made by mixing the components directly on site, or it may be transported from a production plant in concrete-mixer trucks.
This method has the disadvantage of leaving the concrete exposed to the elements while it is setting. Whereas, with other methods, the environmental conditions can be controlled during setting, providing greater control over the outcome, with cast-in-place concrete a series of tests and protocols are necessary to verify its final strength.
- textured walls
- wooden formwork finish
- stamped concrete
- exposed aggregate concrete, colored concrete, etc.
State of Conservation
This monument was opened in 1981 to commemorate the 1300th anniversary of the founding of the first Bulgarian Empire. Unlike other commemorative spaces built by communist regimes in Eastern Europe, which were abandoned after the fall of communism, Shumen’s monument has always been well liked by residents and has been kept in good condition.
It sits at the top of a hill, surrounded by a natural park, and is visible from any point in the city. The route to the top follows a long concrete staircase. The composition is made up of immense rectangular concrete blocks rotated at different angles, creating an interior landscape between them that resembles a gorge. It is massive: just the lion that sits atop it weighs 1,000 tons, and the monument as a whole contains 2,400 tons of rebar and 50,000 m3 of concrete.
The interior is dominated by large sculptures that look like mythological giants, carved from granite blocks and decorated with polychrome mosaics. It depicts key episodes in the country’s history using text and allegorical sculptural groups.
Shumen óblast 9700 Shumen
Fundación DOCOMOMO Ibérico